Jim Davies: News Archive
(Since October 2015, newest first)
- January 18, 2019: The book “Star Wars Psychology: The Dark Side of the Mind” got a great review here, and a chapter Jim Davies co-wrote with film composer Joe Kramer was specifically mentioned. https://www.thebeardedtrio.com/2015/11/book-review-dark-side-of-mind-star-wars.html
- January 15, 2019: Jim Davies is interviewed in the Epoch Times about the psychology of morality and how it relates to the imagination. https://www.theepochtimes.com/imagination-is-key-to-morality_2719993.html
- January 10, 2019: Jim Davies was interviewed on CKCU about his serialized fiction set in Ottawa, Eve Pixiedrowner and the Micean Council. You can listen to this 18 minute interview at https://soundcloud.com/scjimmyd/jim-davies-interview-about-eve-pixiedrowner-and-the-micean-council
- January 8, 2019: Jim Davies released a new episode of Eve Pixiedrowner and the Micean Council. Check out Beware of the Fae at Altered Reality Magazine. http://www.alteredrealitymag.com/serials/eve-pixiedrowner-and-the-micean-council-by-jim-davies/
- January 4, 2019: Kim Hellemans interviews Jim Davies about the psychology of why people like sports on the latest episode of the Minding the Brain Podcast. https://mindingthebrainpodcast.com/2019/01/01/12-why-we-like-sports/
- December 4, 2018: Episode 16 of Eve Pixiedrowner and the Micean Council, "The Acorn Trap," has been released! http://www.alteredrealitymag.com/serials/eve-pixiedrowner-and-the-micean-council-by-jim-davies/
- December 4, 2018: Kim Hellemans interviews Carleton neuroscientist Alfonso Abizaid about eating and nutrition in the most recent episode of the Podcast Minding the Brain, hosted by Kim and Jim Davies. https://mindingthebrainpodcast.com/2018/12/01/11-nutrition-and-the-brain/
- November 29, 2018: Jim Davies argues in Nautilis Magazine that we have many unconscious beliefs. http://nautil.us/blog/many-of-our-beliefs-are-unconscious-a-response-to-nick-chater
- November 27, 2018: Dr. Davies has a philosophy talk online, about distributed cognition and extended mind theory: https://youtu.be/lcToz4VxH04
- November 22, 2018: Jim's article on whether you can multitask appeared in The Conversation. http://theconversation.com/the-science-of-multitasking-and-why-you-should-doodle-in-class-101425
- November 8, 2018: A new Episode of Eve Pixiedrowner and the Micean Council has been released.
- November 6, 2018: Kim Hellemans interviews Jim Davies on the psychology of alien abduction in the most recent episode of their podcast, Minding the Brain. Check out more in Jim’s book, “Riveted.” https://mindingthebrainpodcast.com/2018/11/01/10-alien-abduction/
- October 26, 2018: Jim Davies's productivity method, the "half hours" method, was featured on the Lifehacker website. https://lifehacker.com/increase-your-productivity-by-switching-tasks-every-hal-1828942200
- October 17, 2018: Minding the Brain's episode on Imagining the Future will be featured on the Podcast Playlist on Oct. 20, 2018. Podcast Playlist features the best of podcasting in Canada and airs on CBC Radio One on Saturday at 2 p.m. October 17, 2018: Dr. Davies spoke about his book Riveted at Georgia Tech's GVU distinguished alumni event.
- October 17, 2018: Jim Davies and Darren McKee spoke about free will and the Westworld TV show at CAN*CON 2018.
- October 3, 2018: The new episode of Eve Pixiedrowner and the Micean Council is out, entitled "The Diplomat Dichall."
- October 3, 2018: In the latest episode of the Minding the Brain podcast, Kim and Jim answer questions about brains and minds in front of a live audience. Tune in for 20 Questions with Kim and Jim!
- September 5, 2018: A new episode of Eve Pixiedrowner and the Micean Council was released on September 1, 2018, in Altered Reality Magazine. http://www.alteredrealitymag.com/serials/eve-pixiedrowner-and-the-micean-council-by-jim-davies/
- September 5, 2018: We all know what exercise is good for your body. But did you know that it’s good for your brain, too? Jim Davies interviews neuroscientist Kim Hellemans on the effects of exercise in the most recent episode of their podcast, Minding the Brain. https://mindingthebrainpodcast.com/2018/09/01/8-exercise/
- August 28, 2018: Jim Davies and Kim Hellemans will present a live recording of their podcast, Minding the Brain, at the Carleton University homecoming throwback on Monday, September 10, 2018. Register online and submit your questions, or tweet questions, tagging @Mindingthebrain https://carleton.ca/fass/2018/throwback-2018-live-podcast-time-minding-the-brain/
- August 21, 2018: Jim Davies published a poem in Altered Reality Magazine entitled “Unstole it.” http://www.alteredrealitymag.com/unstole-it-by-jim-davies/
- August 16, 2018: Jim Davies's article in The Conversation about religion and morality was translated into Indonesian. https://theconversation.com/agama-tidak-menentukan-moralitas-anda-100786
- August 7, 2018: A new episode of Minding the Brain, on estrogen and its relationship to women's mental health, is available. https://mindingthebrainpodcast.com/2018/08/01/7-estrogen-and-the-brain/
- July 24, 2018: Jim Davies's new episode of Eve Pixiedrowner and the Micean Council is live at Altered Reality Magazine. The new episode is titled "Draining the Prodigy."
- July 19, 2018: Jim Davies appears on the award-winning Reality Check podcast, talking about how memory palaces, made famous by the Sherlock television show, can be used to aid in memory. http://www.trcpodcast.com/trc-505-memory-palaces-donating-used-clothing/
- July 16, 2018:The Minding the Brain podcast, hosted by Carleton professors Kim Hellemans and Jim Davies, has released its next episode in concert with the Canadian Museum of Nature’s exhibit Brain: The Inside Story (until September 3, 2018). This episode features Kim and Jim walking through the exhibit, talking about what they see and talking about brains and minds.
- July 5, 2018: The Minding the Brain podcast, hosted by Carleton professors Kim Hellemans and Jim Davies, has released its next episode in concert with the Canadian Museum of Nature’s exhibit Brain: The Inside Story (until September 3, 2018). This episode, on using drugs that have often been illegal and abused on the street for treating mental and brain illnesses, features interviews with Dr. Eric Sell and Dr. Pierre Blier, who will speak at the Museum on July 26. http://www.MindingTheBrainPodcast.com/
- June 13, 2018: Jim Davies, of Carleton University’s Institute of Cognitive Science, has a chapter in the new book Daredevil Psychology: The Devil You Know about how the blind (and especially the fiction fictional character of Daredevil) perceive the world around us. http://jimdavies.org/research/publications/daredevil-psychology/2018/Davies2018.html
- Jun 13, 2018: The book Star Wars Psychology: Dark Side of the Mind was well reviewed, including a mention of Jim Davies’s chapter on why we care about droids. https://www.popmythology.com/star-wars-psychology-will-awaken-the-force-in-you/
- June 4, 2018: Dr. Davies's podcast Minding the Brain will do three episodes in concert with the Canadian Museum of Nature's "Brain: The Inside Story" exhibit, on now. The first episode, on concussions, is out. Check it out at https://mindingthebrainpodcast.com/2018/06/01/5-concussions/
- May 22, 2018: Jim Davies’s article in Nature was featured in an article in the publication AI Business. https://aibusiness.com/professor-jim-davies-stop-obsessing-about-ais-consciousness-focus-on-ethics/
- May 15, 2018: Jim Davies gave a short talk and answering questions on a panel about the ethics of artificial intelligence on May 22, 2018, from 5 - 7pm on the 12th floor of the Demarais Building-Telfer School of Management, University of Ottawa, 55 Laurier Avenue East. Video online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LYS3Vy2KVa0&list=PLAxI5w-KUIwNJIu4_5lZDXdKtClfsduQQ&index=5
- May 11, 2018:Jim Davies has an article in the journal Cognitive Science, about computer models of imagination, and how imaginings can be coherent or incoherent.
Vertolli, M.O., Kelly, M.A., & Davies, J. (2017). Coherence in the visual imagination. Cognitive Science. 42, 885—917. http://jimdavies.org/research/publications/cognitive-science-journal/2017/VertolliKellyDavies2017.html
- May 8, 2018: A philosophy paper by Jim Davies and Jeanette Bicknell is now available free for download.
Davies, J. & Bicknell, J. (2016). Imagination and belief: The microtheories model of hypothetical thinking. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 23(3-4), 31--49.
- May the Fourth be with you, 2018: There are nine episodes released of Jim Davies's serialized online fiction Eve Pixiedrowner and the Micean Council, available at
- May the Fourth be with you, 2018: Jim Davies published a philosophically-oriented paper on the definition of “learning.” You can download the paper free.
Davies, J. (2017). What is learning? A definition for cognitive science. In G. Gunzelmann, A. Howes, T. Tenbrink, & E. J. Davelaar (Eds.), Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 271--276). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. http://jimdavies.org/research/publications/cognitive-science-conference/2017/Davies2017g.html
- May 2, 2018: Kim Hellemans interviews Jim Davies about the psychology of social networks (online and off!) on their podcast Minding the Brain. https://mindingthebrainpodcast.com/2018/05/01/4-social-networks/
- May 2, 2018: Jim Davies is interviewed on the podcast “Life With a Sixth Sense” about why we find things compelling. https://soundcloud.com/nawfel-djari/why-things-attract-our-attention-with-dr-jim-davies
- April 30, 2018: Jim Davies is interviewed with Dr. Deirdre Kelly on the Imaginary Worlds podcast on the psychology of Doctor Who villains (time 23:04 to 27:39). https://www.imaginaryworldspodcast.org/behind-the-daleks.html
- April 24 ,2018: Jim Davies is interviewed on Radio Canada International on why we like sports. http://www.rcinet.ca/en/2018/02/24/why-do-we-watch-sports/
- April 9, 2018: Jim Davies is interviewed on the Ottawa Blog Apt 613 on why we are interested in art. http://apt613.ca/jim-davies-appeal-art/
- February 15, 2018: Jim Davies is interviewed on radio station CKCU 93.1 FM, in Ottawa, about the psychology of why we watch sports. https://soundcloud.com/scjimmyd/interview-with-dr-jim-davies-on-ckcu-on-the-psychology-of-sports
- February 15, 2018: Riveted is now available as an audiobook, both on CD and through Audible.
- February 7, 2018: Jim Davies has an article on the blog of Nautilus magazine about the psychology of why we watch sports. http://nautil.us/blog/5-reasons-why-humans-cant-do-without-sports
- February 5, 2018: Jim Davies and Dr. Kim Hellemans have started a podcast on cogitive and brain sciences, called Minding the Brain. You can subscribe on iTunes https://itunes.apple.com/ca/podcast/minding-the-brain/id1343364845
or listen to episodes on the webpage http://www.MindingTheBrainPoscast.com/
Google Play: https://play.google.com/music/m/Izs3my4kn4r66xltl5cwjgmbgta?t=Minding_the_Brain
or Stitcher: https://www.stitcher.com/podcast/minding-the-brain
- January 16, 2018: Jim Davies, of Carleton University’s Institute of Cognitive Science, takes a walk around the National Art Gallery of Canada, talking to the CBC about the psychology of why we like art (10 minutes). http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/ottawa/programs/allinaday/have-you-ever-wondered-why-you-love-some-paintings-and-dislike-others-1.4459392
There is an accompanying web article, as well: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/ottawa/art-professor-study-abstract-1.4459993
- January 15, 2018: The Charlatan has an article about Jim Davies, interviewing him about the appeal of art.
- January 8, 2018: Jim Davies speaks on the “High Off Life” podcast about creativity and the nature of talent (53 minutes). https://soundcloud.com/highofflifepodcast/what-is-talent-who-is-an-artist-i
- December 14, 2017: Jim Davies will be on TVO (streams from Twitter or Facebook) on The Agenda with Steve Paikin tonight at 8pm and 11pm EST (and tomorrow morning at 5am), talking about the psychology of alien design in the Star Wars movies.
- December 14, 2017: Jim Davies speaks on the “Talking to Teens” podcast about how to raise teenagers who can think for themselves. https://www.talkingtoteens.net/raise-teens-who-can-think-for-themselves/
- December 6, 2017: Lia Turner is a @cu_research studen who appeared on “Quirks and Quarks,” answering questions about what blind people see, how they dream, and the differences between dreaming and hallucination. You can hear Ms. Turner, who is a member of Jim Davies's Sciecne of Imagination Laboratory, at times 00:44:00 and 1:06:40.
- December 5, 2017: Jim Davies is writing a fiction serial for the fantasy magazine Altered Reality. It tells the story of a group of mice who protect the children of Ottawa from supernatural threats. The first episode was released on September 1, 2017, and a new episode will be released every month on magazine’s website.
Eve Pixiedrowner and the Micean Council tells the story of a mouse who lives a quiet life in the Gatineau hills until news of how she kills a pixie with her bare paws reaches the Micean Council. Eve gets recruited to help the Council hunt the dark creatures that prey upon Ottawa’s children. In a city of apathetic squirrels and oblivious humans, the mice are the children’s last hope!
Davies, a professor at Carleton University, wanted to make Ottawa feel very real in the story: “Ottawans will recognize the locations, from famous places such as Parliament Hill to small spots like the Jack Purcell off-leash dog park.”
The story is a light-hearted urban animal fantasy. “It’s a bit of a cross between The Rescuers and Ghostbusters,” says Davies, “It has the complexity of adult fiction, but with nothing over the heads of young adults.”
Why mice? “Mice are some of the smallest mammals in Canada, which makes them great underdogs. Just crossing the city in winter is major difficulty for a mouse, particularly when you need to keep your activities hidden from humans. There’s a lot of pigeon riding,” Davies says.“Plus, people just love mice.”
- November 29, 2017: Matthew Murdoch ran a study, under the supervision of Jim Davies, which found that people get the same spiritual feelings from an virtual church on a computer screen versus the same church in real life. This suggests that we can investigate the emotional effects of real-world locations using simulations.
The link to the paper below is a for a free download of the paper until about December 27, 2017.
And afterward click here: http://www.jimdavies.org/research/publications/cyberpsychology/MurdochDavies2017.html
Murdoch, M. & Davies, J. (2017). Spiritual and affective responses to a physical church and corresponding virtual model. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 20(11); 702—708.
- November 17, 2017: Jim Davies appears on the Entrepreneur podcast, talking about imagination, productivity, and creativity. https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/303921
- November 2, 2017: On November 6 Jim Davies will speak about procedural generation at an Ottawa VR meetup.
- November 2, 2017: Jim Davies writes on the Nautilus blog about the psychology of why we (sometimes) like absurd art. http://nautil.us/blog/how-absurd-do-you-like-your-art
- October 24, 2017: Jim Davies was interviewed by The Charlatan about alien design and creativity. http://charlatan.ca/2017/10/qa-carleton-professor-jim-davies/
- October 17, 2017: Jim Davies will present a lecture on the ethics of superintelligent artificial intelligence on November 3, at 10am, as part of the Ottawa Writer’s Festival. It will be held at The NRC Auditorium Building, M-50, at 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa. Registration is free. http://www.writersfestival.org/events/fall-2017/nrc-presents-the-ethics-of-big-data-artificial-intelligence-and-human-centric-science
- October 4, 2017: Jim Davies appeared in the Ottawa Citizen, talking about the psychology of aliens and how they look. http://ottawacitizen.com/news/local-news/why-the-aliens-kind-of-look-like-us-ottawa-professor-explains-psychology-of-star-trek
- September 7, 2017: Jim Davies's description of the paper below was chosen as an essential topic on the Psychology Today blog. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-science-imagination/201709/how-we-can-catch-ball-when-we-dont-know-where-it-will-be
- September 6, 2017: Jim Davies published a paper in the proceedings of the Cognitive Science society, with co-author Jay Jennings. The paper showed that even though people think a ball coming out of a curved tube will continue in a curved manner, they do not make this mistake when actually catching a ball coming out of such a tube.
Jennings, J. & Davies, J. (2017). The motor system does not use a curvilinear belief: Folk physics and embodied cognition. In G. Gunzelmann, A. Howes, T. Tenbrink, & E. J. Davelaar (Eds.), Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2296—2301). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
- August 8, 2017: Jim Davies published two book chapters in the new book Star Trek Psychology: The Mental Frontier. One is about creativity and the design of Star Trek’s aliens, and the other is about the representation of artificial intelligence in the Star Trek universe (co-authored with Dr. Anthony Francis).
Dr. Davies has also published chapters in psychology books about Star Wars and Doctor Who.
Davies, J. (2017). Imagination, creativity, and aliens. In T. Langley (Ed.) Star Trek psychology: The mental frontier. 239—250.
Francis, A. & Davies, J. (2017). The measure of a machine: The psychology of Star Trek’s artificial Intelligence. In T. Langley (Ed.) Star Trek psychology: The mental frontier. 251—266.
- August 2, 2017: Jim Davies published an article in the Scientific American website about why you should not tell people about your dreams. https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/why-you-shouldnt-tell-people-about-your-dreams/#
- July 5, 2017: American radio station WNPR featured Jim Davies talking about how hard it is to predict the future, and the biases we have about it. Dr. Davies appears at time 21:10. You can listen to the show at: http://wnpr.org/post/our-year-unexpected-outcomes
- July 1, 2017: Jim Davies has achieved the rank of full professor, effective July 1, 2017.
- June 15, 2017: Jim Davies, of Carleton University’s Institute of Cognitive Science and School of Computer Science, has an article on the blog for Nautilus magazine about how scientists are bringing the benefits of meditation to mice just by shining light in their eyes. http://nautil.us/blog/this-could-be-a-way-to-get-the-benefits-of-meditation-without-meditating
- June 15, 2017: Jim Davies published an article in Nautilus's blog about the real-world ethical importance of consciousness research. Davies, J. (2017). The moral importance of understanding consciousness. Nautilus blog entry May 21, retrieved from http://nautil.us/blog/the-moral-importance-of-understanding-consciousness
- Jim Davies's play, Cookiecrumble Cookie Toss premiered at the Oak Theater in Atlanta in 2017.
- February 3, 2017: Jim Davies appears on the science podcast “The Reality Check,” talking about AI and consciousness. http://www.trcpodcast.com/trc-429-5-programming-ethics-into-ai/
- February 3, 2017: Jim Davies published in Nautilus about how we make moral judgments. http://nautil.us/blog/how-considering-false-histories-changes-our-moral-judgments
- February 3, 2017: Jim Davies appeared on the CBC television talking about how just Imagining Your Workout Helps. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0bxTVwdX4B8&feature=youtu.be
- February 3, 2017: Jim Davies published a conference proceedings paper on moral judgment with Dr. Deirdre Kelly.
Kelly, D. & Davies, J. (2016). The Charon model of moral judgment. In A. Papafragou, D. Grodner, D. Mirman, & J.C. Trueswell (Eds.) Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. 1415—1420.
- December 9, 2016: Jim Davies published a blog post for Nautilus Magazine about how testosterone can make men more generous. http://nautil.us/blog/testosterone-can-make-men-feel-generous
- December 6, 2016:
Jim Davies appears on the Radio Canada International, talking about consciousness and AI. (12 minutes) http://www.rcinet.ca/en/2016/12/06/developing-artificial-intelligence-boon-or-bane/
- December 1, 2016: Jim Davies appeared on the radio program “Ottawa Morning” about artificial intelligence and consciousness (8 minutes). Interview by Robyn Bresnahan. https://soundcloud.com/scjimmyd/2016-jim-davies-ai-and-consciousness-ottawa-morning-with-robyn-bresnahan
- November 24, 2016: Congratulations to Can Mekik and Dr. Sterling Somers for graduating from Carleton U's Cognitive Science program (Master's and Ph.D., respectively.) https://www.facebook.com/drjimdavies/posts/10101630727536551?pnref=story
- November 22, 2016: Jim Davies on the radio “The John Batchelor Show” about artificial intelligence and consciousness (21 minutes).
- November 7, 2016: Jim Davies's blog entry about how we can sometimes have emotions we can’t feel in Nautilus Magazine: http://nautil.us/blog/you-can-have-emotions-you-dont-feel
- October 20, 2016: Jim Davies published an opinion piece in Nature about how consciousness is a red herring when we concern ourselves with dangerous artificial intelligence.
Davies, J. (2016). Program good ethics into artificial intelligence. Nature, 538(291), October 20.
- October 17, 2016: Jim Davies appeared on CBC Radio One's "Ontario Today," interviewed by Rita Celli about whether robots will ever be able to suffer, and whether we will need to treat them with ethical consideration. Discussed in the context of the new television show "Westworld." https://soundcloud.com/scjimmyd/if-we-can-love-a-robot-can-we-also-hurt-one
- October 4, 2016: Jim Davies will give a talk on imagination and belief Friday for philosophy at Carleton U https://carleton.ca/philosophy/wp-content/uploads/DaviesPoster.pdf
- September 20, 2016: Jim Davies's Nautilus article has attracted news attention:
- August 17, 2016: You can use your imagination to make yourself stronger and better at sports. Jim Davies writes in Nautilus: http://nautil.us/blog/just-imagining-a-workout-can-make-you-stronger
- July 20, 2016: What are dreams for? Jim Davies's new article in Nautilus http://nautil.us/blog/your-terrifying-dreams-could-be-rehearsal-for-real-life
- July 6, 2016: Jim Davies appears on the Youniversity podcast, talking about the power of imagination. http://www.brendansage.com/10-2/
- 2016: Jim Davies appears on the podcast "Spark My Muse," talking about imagination. http://lisadelay.com/blog/2016/05/06/eps-60-the-science-of-the-imagination-and-fascination/?
- June 8, 2016: Jim Davies published a blog entry at Nautilus on how well we can predict our future happiness: http://nautil.us/blog/be-happier-by-knowing-your-future-self
- May 19, 2016: Jim Davies appeared on the podcast "The Reality Check" to talk about the psychology of the droids of Star Wars.
- May 4, 2016: Dr. Davies published an entry on his Psychology Today blog: If the history of life on Earth were a pool, how much water would represent your life?
- May 4, 2016: For people who teach video and online courses, a blog entry by Jim Davies about slide design.
- April 5, 2016: New publications:
Davies, J. & Michaelian, K. (2016). Identifying and individuating cognitive systems: A task-based distributed cognition alternative to agent-based extended cognition. Cognitive Processing.
Davies, J. & Bicknell, J. (2016). Imagination and belief: The microtheories model of hypothetical thinking. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 23(3-4), 31--49.
- March 23, 2016: Jim Davies on our psychological setpoints on the Nautilus blog.
- February 23, 2016: Jim Davies appeared on the BBC radio show Digital Human, talking about imagination.
- Jan 29, 2016: Jim Davies appeared on Ontario Today radio call-in show to talk about why people still believe in newspaper horoscopes. mp3
- Recently Dr. Davies gave a talk on the mistakes people make when imagining their future at TEDx CarletonU (14 min).
- Jan 28, 2016: Jim Davies published a blog entry for the science magazine Nautilus about how our minds mix the concepts of space and time.
- Jim Davies spoke about the psychology of the Star Wars Music with composer Joe Kraemer (Mission Impossible: Rogue Nation) on CBC's All in a Day, Monday, December 21, 2015 at 3pm. Listen online at http://www.cbc.ca/allinaday/
- Nov 30, 2015: Jim Davies publishes on the psychology of the name "Black Friday" in Nautilus
- Nov 13, 2015: Jim Davies publishes on how many friends you can have at once in Nautilus.
- Tai Lopez interviewed Jim Davies about Riveted: it racked up 54k views in two days! excerpt here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-mCnVrUI1Q
- Nov 13, 2015: Ted Lougheed interviewed Jim Davies about Riveted and the psychology of Star Wars droids on the Dr. Ted Podcast. (Davies's piece starts at 8:00) Stitcher | soundcloud
- October 13, 2015: Jim Davies's review of Peter Singer's latest book was published in Skeptic magazine.You can pick up a copy in bookstores.
Davies, J. (2015). What good can we do? A review of The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism Is Changing Ideas about Living Ethically by Peter Singer. Skeptic, 20(3), 54—55.